Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels and they include:
- coronary heart disease – disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle;
- cerebrovascular disease – disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain;
- peripheral arterial disease – disease of blood vessels supplying the arms and legs;
- rheumatic heart disease – damage to the heart muscle and heart valves from rheumatic fever, caused by streptococcal bacteria;
- congenital heart disease – malformations of heart structure existing at birth;
- deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism – blood clots in the leg veins, which can dislodge and move to the heart and lungs.
Symptoms of cardiovascular diseases
- pain or discomfort in the centre of the chest;
- pain or discomfort in the arms, the left shoulder, elbows, jaw, or back.
Electrocardiogram (ECG)., Holter monitoring, Echocardiogram. Stress test.
Heart disease treatments vary by condition. For instance, if you have a heart infection, you’ll likely be given antibiotics. In general, treatment for heart disease usually includes:
- Lifestyle changes These include eating a low-fat and low-sodium diet, getting at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise on most days of the week, quitting smoking, and limiting alcohol intake.
- If lifestyle changes alone aren’t enough, your doctor may prescribe medications to control your heart disease. The type of medication will depend on the type of heart disease.
- Medical procedures or surgery If medications aren’t enough, it’s possible your doctor will recommend specific procedures or surgery. The type of procedure will depend on the type of heart disease and the extent of the damage to your heart.